The Ancient City of Memphis
The oldest structures in Cairo date back only to the last couple of centuries BC during Greco-Roman period; however, on the fringes of the city stand the Giza Pyramids, some of the oldest structures on Earth. Despite their proximity to Cairo, the difference in age between the pyramids and the city itself are proof of their different histories.
The history of Memphis is closely linked to that of the country itself. Its eventual downfall is believed to be due to the loss of its economic significance in late antiquity, following the rise of coastal Alexandria.
The ruins of the former capital today offer fragmented evidence of its past. They have been preserved, along with the pyramid complex at Giza, as a World Heritage Site since 1979.